Joseph Pender and Sophia Barrand were in their early 40s when they immigrated to the United States in 1883.[i] I was unable to locate a marriage record online, but based on the ages of the nine children found through census records, I estimated they were married in England before the oldest child was born in about 1863.[ii] Unfortunately, there were several Joseph Penders and Sophia Barrands in the marriage indexes around that timeframe and I was not able to distinguish between the possible couples within the time frame allotted for this project.
Ordnance Survey Open Data. County boundaries and GB coastline. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 23 November 2010.
Sophia was born in June of 1840[iii] at Birmingham, Warwickshire, England[iv] to John and Pheby Barrand.[v] One sister, Emma,[vi] was identified through census records. She and her family moved to Lincolnshire by the 1861 census.[vii] Her father was employed as a butcher and then a beer seller according to the census records.[viii] Sophia’s parents were not researched further than the census records presented here.
Ordnance Survey Open Data. County boundaries and GB coastline. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 16 November 2010.
They appeared for the first time as a family on the 1871 England Census.[xii] Joseph followed in this father’s footsteps as a farmer. At that time, he owned 100 acres of land, employed four labourers, and a domestic servant. Why they left this behind to immigrate to the United States is unclear. On 7 May 1883 Joseph, Sophia, and six of their children arrived at the port of New York City on board the SS England.[xiii] The date was almost four months prior to the arrival of their son-in-law Walter Ings and daughter Marian. Just as their daughter, they passed through Castle Garden immigration control.
Passenger list for S.S. England departing Liverpool. PENDER, Joseph. 7 May 1883. Collection: New York, Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Image. http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 10 June 2017.
Joseph Pender took his oath of allegiance to the United States on 10 February 1891 at the County Court of Kings County, New York.[xiv] With his oath, his wife Sophia and all his minor children, became citizens. The next year the family appeared on the 1892 New York State Census.[xv] They were living a few blocks from their daughter Marian and her family in the 8th Ward of Brooklyn, New York. Joseph was employed as a labourer.
Naturalization Records (United States). PENDER, Joseph Sr. 10 Feb 1891. Collection: New York, State and Federal Naturalization Records, 1794-1940. Image. http://www.ancestry.com : accessed 10 June 2017.
Unfortunately, Joseph, who was aged about 50 years, died on 29 November 1892.[xvi] He was buried at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, Kings County, New York.[xvii] Later, his wife would be laid to rest in the plot next to him.[xviii]
The next record for Sophia was the 1900 US Federal Census.[xix] It showed she lived at 289 46th Street Brooklyn, NY with her daughters Nellie and Margaret. They were also in the same building as her daughter Mary, who was married with her own family. Nellie and Margaret were employed as a saleswoman and a book keeper respectively while their mother, Sophia, had no occupation listed. By 1905 Sophia had moved again. She resided, as previously stated, with her daughter Marian Ings. Before the 1910 census Sophia moved in with her daughter Mary and her family.[xx] She died three years later at the age of 73 on 20 November 1913 at Kings County, NY.[xxi]
 Immigration laws at that time stated that all minor children and wives would become citizens upon the granting of citizenship to the husband. According to records, Joseph’s adult son Joseph Jr. became a citizen on the same day as well. However, as an adult he applied on his own behalf and was not included in his father’s household.
[viii] Census. 1851. England. Aston Warwickshire. Piece: 2060. Folio: 202. Page: 23. http://www.ancestry.com : accessed June 10.
Census. 1861. England. North Kyme, Lincolnshire. Piece: 2341. Folio: 34. Page: 10. http://www.ancestry.com : accessed June 10.
[xiii] Op. cit. Passenger list for S.S. England departing Liverpool. PENDER, Joseph.
[xvii] The Green-Wood Historic Fund. Green-Wood Cemetery Burial Search. Index. http://www.green-wood.com/burial_results/index.php : accessed 10 June 2017.